中国驾照在美国各州开车的规定(官方文件)

类别:美国旅游签证资讯  发布时间:2017-12-20 11:16:40 浏览:2223 评论:0
内容摘要:持中国驾照在美国旅游,是否可以合法开车,网上有很多讨论。驾照是各州地方事务,和联邦政府没有关系,因此不存在所谓的「美国驾照」,只有各州的驾照;是否承认外国驾照也由各州决定。本文主要参考资料为截至 2017 年各州交通管理部门 (DMV) 或执法部门、立法部门的官方文件,并全部列出原文可供核实。

持中国驾照在美国旅游,是否可以合法开车,网上有很多讨论。驾照是各州地方事务,和联邦政府没有关系,因此不存在所谓的「美国驾照」,只有各州的驾照;是否承认外国驾照也由各州决定。本文主要参考资料为截至 2017 年各州交通管理部门 (DMV) 或执法部门、立法部门的官方文件,并全部列出原文地址可供核实。

写在前面的话

在美国旅游和留学,持中国驾照是否可以合法开车上路,主要取决于各州的法律。在查询各州法规之前,有几件事情中国公民应该注意:

外国驾照只适用于「非居民」 (nonresident); 「居民」 (resident) 必须在定居之后(一般是迁入之后 30 天内)申请本州驾照,以外州甚至外国驾照开车可能被控无证驾驶。不同州和部门对「非居民」的定义不一样,持旅游签证、入境不超过 30 天的中国公民,在任何一个州都属于「非居民」。

持有美国绿卡的中国公民不能使用中国驾照。绿卡指的是 “Permanent Resident” -- Resident 不能使用外国驾照,上面已经解释了,否则视为无证驾驶。

美国各州对考正式驾照的年龄要求一般是 16 岁或 18 岁,而根据 2012 颁布的中华人民共和国《机动车驾驶证申领和使用规定》,中国驾照的年龄要求是 18 周岁。因此,对持中华人民共和国驾照的游客和学生来说,年龄不是问题。

中国不存在国际驾照 (International Driver Permit; IDP)。如果你持 PRC 驾照,任何人和机构声称能给你办理国际驾照,不管他们身在中国还是美国,都是骗子。国际驾照由联合国 1949 年《日内瓦道路交通公约》和 1968 年《维也纳道路交通公约》确立;中华人民共和国并没有批准和加入这两个公约,因此没有资格颁发、也不承认国际驾照 -- 可参阅美国国务院博客雾谷飞鸿的介绍《再谈国际驾照》。

IDP 其实就是一张签约国互相认可的翻译,必须和母国的驾照原件一起使用,而且只能由本国政府和机构颁发;也就是说,美国政府也不能给中国驾照颁发 IDP。当然,如果你在美国工作、学习或已经定居,有美国驾照,那么申请 IDP 很容易。

支付宝和租租车公司的「国际驾照认证件」没有法律效力。

小心谨慎开车,减少出事故和被警察 Pull Over 的机率。

美国、台湾、香港和澳门都批准了以上两个公约。在下面的介绍中我们会看到,美国不少州,如Massachusetts, 承认台湾、香港、澳门的驾照,但是不承认中华人民共和国驾照。

本文根据美国各州的官方资料来解读 PRC 驾照是否可以合法开车,可以查对原文核实。我尽量找 DMV / MVA / Law Enforcement Agency 主管机构的资料。有些法规条文只明确了 "license from another state," 我认为指的是「美国其他州的驾照」,并不包含其他国家驾照,只有 "license from another country" 才是「外国驾照」。

一人之力有限,如果你知道更准确或权威的信息,或者发现引用错误,请留言说明。

美国各州对中国驾照的态度

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持中国驾照来美国自驾游的建议

大部分美国人 -- 包括很多警察 -- 并不了解国际驾照 (IDP) 和联合国公约,更不用说记得哪些国家签署了这几个公约、哪些国家没有签署。

因此,即使在法律上明确不承认中国驾照的州,拿中国驾照也完全有可能租到车、甚至警察也不一定管你;然而这并不能证明「中国驾照合法」。反过来说,在那些明明说了「承认外国驾照」的州,有些警察可能也不一定鸟你的中国驾照。本文的信息,只是帮助你尽可能准确地了解美国各州的政策,路上实际上会遇到怎样的警察,多少还是有一点运气的成分在里面。为了尽可能保护自己:

首先当然要确保中国驾照有效并随身携带。现在的中国驾照我记得是中英文双语。

可能的话找中国领事馆翻译成英文并盖章,但是据网友反馈,领事馆表示没这个业务懒得理你。

如果所在州的 DMV/MVA 有授权的译者,找他们翻译成英文 -- 比如说 Maryland 的 DMV 就有这项服务,我在 MD 考驾照的时候,花 25 美元从上面找译者翻译,半个小时就给我了。

实在不行你就在美国找一个律师事务所做份英文翻译,最好还找 Notary 公证一下,这些翻译件带在身上聊胜于无、以备万一。支付宝的「国际驾照认证件」其实就是一个认证过的普通翻译件。

读一遍美国的《驾驶员手册》 -- 目前有 5 个州和特区提供中文版《驾驶员手册》。至少,你得知道一些美国开车的常识,比如路权、谁先走谁后走;比如哪些车辆必须停车避让(比如警车、比如校车!);被警察拦下来之后需要注意些什么 -- 比如双手必须放在方向盘上让警察看到、未经警察许可不能下车,等;另外要熟悉美国常见的交通标志,比如限速,比如非常重要的 STOP 标志,比如 "Do not pass" 的含义。

下面是各州政府部门的官方资料,应该可以视为合法的依据。另外,网友「青争子」在微信上联系我,说她写邮件给各州 DMV 咨询,有 9 个州回复了。这些回复她截图给我并同意我加到这篇文章中。

阿拉巴马州 (Alabama): 中国驾照可以合法开车上路

State of Alabama, Law Enforcement Agency, "Frequently Asked Questions,"The following persons may drive a motor vehicle upon the streets or highways in Alabama without an Alabama driver license. [...]

A non-resident at least 16 years old who has in his immediate possession a valid driver license issued to him in his home state or country. [...]

Any non-resident fulltime student, properly enrolled and registered in a school, college, university, or trade school in this state, who holds a valid license from his home state or country.

大意:16 岁以上 nonresident 凭母国(州)有效驾照可在 Alabama 合法开车上路。

阿拉斯加州 (Alaska): 中国驾照入境内 90 天可以

State of Alaska, Division of Motor Vehicles, "Transfer a License

from another State, US Territory, or Country,"

You are welcome to drive in Alaska if you are at least 16 years old and have a valid driver license from another state, US Territory, or country.

If you will be driving in Alaska for more than 90 days, you must get an Alaska driver license.

大意:年满 16 岁并且拥有其他国家(州)有效驾照,可在 Alaska 境内驾驶不超过 90 天,之后则需要申请 Alaska 驾照。

亚利桑那州 (Arizona): 中国驾照可以

State of Arizona, Department of Transportation, "Frequently Asked Questions,"

What is needed for a person from another country to drive in Arizona?

You may legally drive in Arizona using a valid driver license from another country. An international driving license or permit is not required, but it is recommended because it can be printed in English and used in conjunction with the driver license from the other count

大意:你可以使用有效的外国驾照在 Arizona 合法驾驶,无需国际驾照。

阿肯色州 (Arkansas): 中国驾照可能不行

Arkansas 的 DMV 没有明确说明,但是 Arkansas 大学给学生们准备的《考驾照指南》(Guide to Obtaining an Arkansas Driver's License)表示,

All drivers' must have a valid unexpired license from one of the United States or a valid unexpired

international license. You may drive legally with a license from your home country if you also have an

international license (both are required).

大意:必须要有母国驾照 + 国际驾照。上面我们已经说了,中国没有国际驾照。

加利福尼亚州 (California): 中国驾照可以

State of California, Department of Motor Vehicles, "How to apply for a driver license if you are over 18?"

If you are a visitor in California over 18 and have a valid driver license from your home state or country, you may drive in this state without getting a California driver license as long as your home state license remains valid.

If you become a California resident, you must get a California driver license within 10 days. Residency is established by voting in a California election, paying resident tuition, filing for a homeowner's property tax exemption, or any other privilege or benefit not ordinarily extended to nonresidents.

大意:18 岁以上游客可凭母国(州)有效驾照在加州合法开车上路,没有明确时间限制。如果来加州定居,则需要在 10 天内考取加州驾照。

科罗拉多州 (Colorado): 中国驾照 30 天内应该可以

Colorado DMV 官网没找到明确说明,但是 University of Northern Colorado 给学生们准备的这份指南表示,

International Driver's Licenses may be used for up to 30 days. After that you must obtain a Colorado Driver's License.

大意:他国驾照可在 Colorado 州使用 30 天,此后须申请本州驾照。

康涅狄格州 (Connecticut): 中国驾照在 1 年内应该可以

State of Connecticut, Department of Motor Vehicles, "International Driver Permits,"

An International Driver Permit (IDP) is essentially an English translation of a foreign language driver's license issued by a foreign country. These permits can only be obtained in the country which issued the actual license.

An IDP is not considered a valid license. It must accompany the valid foreign license. Connecticut permits a student or visitor to operate a motor vehicle in Connecticut for a period of up to one year with his or her foreign license. If the license is in a language other than English or Spanish, the license must be accompanied by an IDP which serves as an English translation of the foreign license.

大意:入境 1 年内可使用他国驾照,如使用英语和西班牙语之外的语言,则必须和国际驾照同时使用。

然而,根据康州 DMV 对网友「青争子」的回复(如下), "You must have a valid IDP to operate a vehicle in CT" -- 「在康州开车你必须持有效的国际驾照」,这和 DMV 官网的说明不同,有可能他们并不知道中国驾照是中英文双语的?

另外,根据这位读者的反馈,「根据DMV邮件回复,可以把中国驾照在康州认可的翻译人员或者个人处进行翻译,然后配合原件就可以上路了。」

特拉华州 (Delaware): 中国可能不行

State of Delaware, Division of Motor Vehicles, "Driver Services

- General Requirements,"

Exemptions From Holding A Delaware Driver's License: [...] Non-resident operators, over the age of sixteen (16) years, currently licensed in their home state or country. The license must be in the driver's possession.

大意:16 岁以上非本州居民,可使用母国(州)有效驾照开车上路,并没有说需要国际驾照。

然而,特拉华州 DMV 给网友「青争子」的回复说, "In order to be legally drive here you must have a valid International Driving Permit" -- 必须要有国际驾照。

华盛顿特区 (Disctrict of Columbia): 中国驾照应该可以

Distrct of Columbia, Department of Motor Vehicles, "Obtain a REAL ID Driver License with Out of Country Driver License,"

[...] A licensed driver who moves to the District of Columbia from another country is required to obtain a DC driver license, if residing in DC for more than 30 days and is not in the US on visiting visa. [...] We do not accept International Driver Licenses as proof of ability to drive. If you possess a non-English language driver license from a foreign country, you must attach an English translation from your embassy or from a certified translator. The embassy translation must be on official embassy letterhead. The date of the translation must be on or after the actual date of the non-English language driver license. Certified translator copies must have a certification stamp.

大意: DC 不认国际驾照。外国驾照如果没有英语,需去大使馆或找授权译者翻译成英文,随身携带。

注:截至2017年8月,以上链接已经失效。DC DMV 官网没有更新的说明,唯一提及国外驾照的说明在这里:

If you have a valid out-of-country driver license, you will still have to take and pass the DC DMV driver knowledge test before you can get a DC DMV REAL ID driver license.

You will be allowed to keep your out-of-country driver license along with your DC DMV REAL ID driver license. DC DMV does not accept international driver licenses.

If your valid, non-US driver license is not in English, you must attach an English translation from your embassy or from a translation company. The embassy translation must be on official embassy letterhead. The date of the translation must be on or after the actual date of the non-English language driver license. Translations from companies must be certified with a translation stamp, or notarized by preparing a notarized affidavit confirming the translation was prepared by a qualified translator and that it is both accurate and complete.

佛罗里达州 (Florida): 中国驾照可以

State of Florida, Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, "Visiting from another country?"

Visitors to Florida who wish to drive while here are required to have in their immediate possession a valid driver license issued in his or her name from their country of residence.

大意:游客在佛罗里达州开车上路,需随身携带母国(州)有效驾照。

乔治亚州 (Georgia): 中国驾照可以

State of Georgia, Department of Driver Services, "Drivers From Other Nations,"

Georgia recognizes unexpired driver’s licenses issued to and held by residents of other countries as long as the foreign license is unexpired. Generally, you may drive in Georgia for up to one year on an unexpired foreign license. Please note that in the case of a driver license issued by the driver's licensing authority of a foreign country, a law officer may consult such person's passport or visa to verify the validity of such license, if available.

大意:他国驾照只要未过期,可在 Georgia 使用一年。

夏威夷州 (Hawaii): 中国驾照可能不行

Hawaii 首府 Honolulu 官网有两条说明,一条是 2015 年 1 月 15 日更新的 "Frequently Asked Questions,"

Your valid foreign license is good to drive in Honolulu, Hawaii one year upon entry. You will need your valid passport to show admission date. Last Reviewed: January 15, 2015

一条是 2015 年 6 月 9 日更新的 "Frequently Asked Questions,"

The individual must have a foreign license along with their international permit to drive and a valid passport to show admission date. The license is valid one year upon entry to the U.S. The country must be listed with the United Nations Convention on Road Traffic (Geneva, 1949), and the Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American States. For complete listing of the recognized countries, please call AAA at 808-593-2221.

第二条大意是外国驾照必须和 IPD 同时使用,入境 1 年内有效。如果是这样,中国驾照用不了。

爱达荷州 (Idaho): 中国驾照可以

Idaho Transportation Department, "International Driving Privileges,"

The United States signed an agreement with many other countries to honor a foreign driver license for visitors to the United States for up to one year from the date of arrival. [...] Visitors from foreign countries may drive non-commercially in Idaho using a foreign-issued driver license. Visitors must carry the foreign driver license and, in addition, it is suggested that visitors carry an International Driving Permit issued by officials in their country of residence. It is not mandatory that visitors have the International Driving Permit; it is merely a suggestion to aid law enforcement officials and others who need to know the actual content of the license.

大意:入境 1 年内他国驾照在 Idaho 可从事非商业性驾驶,有 IDP 更好,但是并非强制。

//注:截至2017年8月,以上链接已经失效。我在 Idaho 政府官网没有再找到关于国外游客在 Idaho 开车的说明。

伊利诺伊州 (Illinois): 中国驾照也许可以

Illinois, Secretary of State, "NEW TO ILLINOIS DRIVING,"

You may drive in Illinois with your valid license from your own country during your stay. This also applies to your spouse and children living with you while attending an Illinois college or university. [...] However, an International License is not valid in the State of Illinois.

这段话有些让人困惑。一方面,你可以使用他国驾照在 Illinois 开车,并且没有明确的时间限制。然而,它又说,Illinois 不承认 International License.

Illinois Legal Aid Online (伊利诺伊州法律援助网) 也有说明:

If you have a valid foreign driver's license, you may legally drive in Illinois for 90 days from the day you became a resident of Illinois. You must keep that license on you at all times while driving. You should have the license translated into English so police officers and other officials are able to read it.

大意:他国驾照可在 Illinois 使用 90 天。

印第安纳州 (Indiana): 中国驾照应该可以

State of Indiana, Bureau of Motor Vehicles, "NEW INDIANA RESIDENTS,"

The United States signed an agreement with many other countries to honor a foreign driver license for visitors to the United States for at least one year from the date of arrival. This privilege is made possible as a result of the United Nations Convention on Road Traffic (Geneva, 1949), and the Convention on the Regulation of American Automotive Traffic (Washington, 1943), both of which have been ratified by the United States.

An out-of-country driver's license cannot be used for identification purposes. Out-of-country driver's license must in the English language or presented with a verifiably accurate English translation of the document.

大意: 他国驾照可以开车,不能用作身份证明 (ID); 该驾照如果不是英语,则需要提供一份可核实的准确英语翻译。没有明确说是否只适用于联合国 1949 年公约的签署国。

印第安纳州 BMV 给网友「青争子」的回复也说, "Out-of-country driver's license must (be) in the English language or presented with a verifiably accurate English translation of the document" -- 只要是英文、或有可以准确核实的英文翻译即可。

爱荷华州 (Iowa): 中国驾照可以

State of Iowa, Department of Transportation, "The Driver's License,"

Anyone who operates a motor vehicle or motorcycle or moped on public streets and roads in Iowa is required to have a license. You are considered an Iowa resident for purposes of driver licensing if you have [...] lived in Iowa continuously for 30 days. [...]

You do not need an Iowa driver's license if you [...] are a student or visitor and have a current license from your home state or country. [...]

大意: 在 Iowa 连续停留 30 天以上需要考驾照,学生和游客可以凭母国(州)驾照开车。

堪萨斯州 (Kansas): 中国驾照可以

Kansas Driving Handbook (revised Nov. 2016):

Out of State License or Driving on an Existing License

The following people can drive on a valid license as long as they are at least 16 years old:

[...]

Aliens - Foreign tourists, teachers or business people who are here for up to one year and who hold valid Immigration Documents.

Kansas State University 在 Driver's License in Kansas里也说道:

If you have a valid driver license from your home country and do not become a Kansas resident as defined by the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), you may drive for up to one year from the date of entry stamped on your I-94. If you become a Kansas resident as determined by the DMV, you have 60 days to get a new Kansas driver's license. The Kansas DMV law states you become a Kansas resident 90 days after registering a child in school or registering a motor vehicle.

Although it is not required, you should also have an International Driving Permit (IDP).

大意: 游客可持母国驾照,推荐但是不强制使用 IDP.

肯塔基州 (Kentucky): 中国驾照不可以

Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, "Foreign Tourists,"

Foreign Tourists from any Geneva Compact countries who vist the United States as bona fide tourists can drive legally while using their valid domestic driver license for a period not to exceed one year from the date of arrival. The foreign license, if not in English, must be accompanied by an International Driving Permit obtained from the driver's home country. This arrangement applies to driving either personal or rental cars. Bona fide tourists from Geneva Compact countries can also legally drive their own private cars bearing valid license plates/registration tags issued in their native country for a period not to exceed one year from the date of arrival.

If the visiting tourist accepts a job or attends school in the United States, he then loses tourist status and must obtain a state driver license and plates in accordance with the regulations in effect in the state where residence is chosen. If the tourist is here for only two or three months as a visitor to factories for purposes of overseeing or learning, he is not required to have a Kentucky driver license.

这两段话的一个重要关键词是 "Geneva Compact countries" -- 即日内瓦公约国家, Kentucky 承认这些国家的驾照,并列出了详细名单,里面有台湾、香港、澳门,没有中国。

路易斯安那州 (Louisiana): 中国驾照可能不行

State of Louisiana, Public Safety Services, "Class D & E Driver's Guide (2016),"

The following people are NOT required to obtain a Louisiana driver's license:

Non-residents who possess a valid license issued by another state. You are permitted to drive in this state for a period of 90 days.

Non-resident students who possess both a valid driver's license issued by their home state and a current student ID card.

Anyone operating a farm tractor, farm implements, or road machinery temporarily on the highway.

Members of the Armed Forces driving a U.S. government vehicle while on official duty.

Resident members of the Armed Forces or resident military dependents possessing a valid driver's license from their home state.

大意:美国其他州的有效驾照可以;完全没有提到其他国家的驾照。

缅因州 (Maine): 中国驾照可以

State of Maine, Bureau of Motor Vehicles, "State of Maine Motorist Handbook and Study Guide,"

Who May Operate a Motorcycle or Moped?

Any resident of the state who has a motorcycle permit or a valid Maine motorcycle license. Any nonresident possessing a valid motorcycle license from the state or country of their legal residence.

大意: Nonresident (非居民) 如有母国(州)的有效驾照即可在缅因州合法开车。

马里兰州 (Maryland): 中国驾照可以

General Assembly of Maryland, "Artical - Transportation, Section 16-102,"

(a) The licensing requirements of this title do not apply to: [...] (10) A nonresident of the United States if:

(i) The individual has a valid license to drive issued to the individual by the country of residence;

(ii) The individual's license authorizes him to drive in that country vehicles of the class he is driving in this State;

(iii) The individual is at least the same age as that required of a resident for the vehicle he is driving in this State; and

(iv) Except as provided for in Subtitle 8 of this title, the vehicle is not a commercial motor vehicle.

大意:满足 Maryland 年龄要求(正式驾照为 18 岁)的外国公民 (nonresident of the U.S.) 持母国有效驾照可在 Maryland 驾驶同类型的非商用车辆。

麻塞诸塞州 (Massachusetts): 中国驾照不可以

Massachusetts 可能外国游客较多、执法人员经常会遇到外国驾驶员,所以 The Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicles 专门为此准备了一个问答, FAQs about International Driving Permits, International Driver Licenses & Driving Privileges for Foreign Licensed Drivers, 其中说道:

4. Is a foreign licensed driver required to carry an International Driving Permit (IDP) when driving in Massachusetts?

No. Although some countries require a foreign motorist to possess an IDP, the United States has not done so. It is suggested, however, that he/she carry an IDP if the foreign license is not printed in the English language.

5. Does Massachusetts honor valid foreign driver licenses from every country?

No. Massachusetts will only honor valid licenses from countries identified in Appendix "C" of the current Massachusetts Driver's Manual.

大意: Massachusetts 不要求国际驾照 (IPD), 但是他们只承认这些国家的驾照,其中很明确地列出来了: "Hong Kong (but not mainland China)," "Macao (but not mainland China)" 和 "Taiwan (Republic of China)." 香港、澳门、台湾都可以,中国大陆驾照不可以。

密歇根州 (Michigan): 中国驾照可以

根据读者 Allen 的反馈,我们查到 Michigan 于2016年5月26日通过了第501号法案(2017年3月生效),ENROLLED SENATE BILL No. 501,全文点击这里,节选如下:

Except as otherwise provided by this act, and as provided in this section, a nonresident operator of a motor vehicle who is the holder of a license to operate a motor vehicle issued by a country other than the United States is not required to obtain a license to operate a passenger vehicle in this state if he or she does not receive compensation for such operation. The nonresident operator may operate a motor vehicle in compliance with otherwise applicable state and federal law using the license to operate a motor vehicle issued by a country other than the United States if the country that issued the nonresident operator's license is a party to an international treaty, convention, or agreement regulating traffic, driving, or the operation of motor vehicles to which the United States or this state is also a party, according to the terms of that treaty, convention, or agreement. If the issuing country is not a party to a treaty, convention, or agreement described in this subsection, the nonresident operator may operate a motor vehicle using the license issued by his or her home country if he or she would otherwise be able to satisfy the requirements of section 307(1) except for any requirement to establish an address in this state or residency. While operating a passenger vehicle in this state, a nonresident operator who is the holder of a license to operate a motor vehicle issued by a country other than the United States shall have in his or her immediate possession his or her valid license to operate a motor vehicle issued by that country and, if no English translation appears on the front or back of the license, 1 of the following:

(a) A valid international driving permit.

(b) If the license to operate a motor vehicle is issued by a country that does not permit the issuance of an international driving permit, a document containing a photo and an English translation that substantially corresponds to an international driving permit, which shall be used solely to properly identify the individual appearing on the license for the purpose of enforcing this act.

大意:非居民在 Michigan 开车,只要不收费(不是商业行为),无需取得 Michigan 驾照。

外国驾照如不是英文,并且签发国没有加入相关的公约、不能颁发国际驾照(IDP) -- 说的就是 PRC 驾照啊 -- 可以使用母国驾照 + 一份带相片的英文翻译,在 Michigan 驾驶。以这个标准来看,支付宝和租租车公司的山寨国际驾照(Translation of International Driver License)在 Michigan 可以合法使用。

密歇根移民权利中心(Michigan Immigrant Rights Center)对这份文件的解读也明确认为,该条文适用于中国驾照。但是,他们又说,

SB 501 would also provide for new recognition of licenses issued by countries whose licenses are not currently recognized under the treaty, including China, but would subject holders of licenses from those countries to a "legal presence" requirement.

也就是说,你必须有 Legal Presence -- 有合法身份。虽然我没找到更具体的要求,但如果你是 B1/B2 游客,护照和签证(或I-94/延期批准文件等)就是你的 Legal Presence.

明尼苏达州 (Minnesota): 中国驾照可以

Minnesota Driver's Manual,

Who Does Not Need a Minnesota License?

You may drive a motor vehicle on public roads in Minnesota without a valid Minnesota driver's license or permit, if you meet one of these exceptions:

You are a nonresident who is at least 15 years of age and have in your possession a valid driver's license issued to you in your home state or country.

大意:15 岁以上的 nonresident 可持母国(州)有效驾照在 Minnesota 合法开车上路。

密西西比州 (Mississippi): 中国驾照可以

Mississippi Driver's Manual,

PERSONS EXEMPTED FROM HAVING A LICENSE

You are exempted from having a Mississippi driver's license if: [...]

You are a non-resident over the age of sixteen (16) and have in your possession a valid driver's license issued to you by the proper authorities in your home state or home country. (If you hold a license from another state, and are over the age of eighteen [18], you may operate a vehicle in the state for a period of sixty [60] days without securing a Mississippi driver's license).

大意:16 岁以上的 non-resident 可持母国(州)有效驾照在 Mississippi 合法开车上路。其他州居民的期限为 60 天;其他国家居民则没有明确说明。

密苏里州 (Missouri): 中国驾照可以

Missouri General Assembly 官网, Missouri Revised Statutes, Drivers' and Commercial Drivers' Licenses, Chapter 302, Section 302.080.1,

302.080. The following persons are exempt from license hereunder: [...]

(2) A nonresident who is at least sixteen years of age and who has in his immediate possession a valid license issued to him in his home state or country.

大意:16 岁以上的 nonresident 可持母国(州)驾照在 Missouri 开车。

蒙大拿州 (Montana): 中国驾照可以

Montana Code Annotated 2014, 61-5-104, "Exemptions,"

A nonresident who is at least 15 years of age and who is in immediate possession of a valid operator's license issued to the nonresident by the nonresident's home state or country may operate a motor vehicle, except a commercial motor vehicle, in this state.

大意:15 岁以上 nonresident 可持母国(州)有效驾照在 Montana 驾驶非商用车辆。

内布拉斯加州 (Nebraska): 中国驾照可能不行

Nebraska Revised Statute 60-488, Nonresidents; license requirements; immunity,

(1) A nonresident shall not be prevented from operating a motor vehicle upon the highways of this state during the period within which he or she may lawfully operate such motor vehicle in the state under the general motor vehicle laws of this state, but in no event shall such immunity extend beyond a period of thirty days continuous residence in the State of Nebraska.

(2) Subsection (1) of this section shall be subject to the following limitations:

(a) Such nonresident shall be duly licensed under the motor vehicle laws of the state of his or her residence or have complied with the laws of the state of his or her residence relating to the registration or licensing of motor vehicles and conformed to the laws of such state of residence in relation to the operators of motor vehicles;

大意: Nonresident 可持居住地所在州的驾照在 Nebraska 驾车 30 天,然而似乎只适用于美国的其他州,完全没有提到外国驾照。

内华达州 (Nevada): 中国驾照可以

Nevada Legislature, CHAPTER 483 - DRIVERS' LICENSES; DRIVING SCHOOLS AND DRIVING INSTRUCTORS, NRS 483.240, Exemptions from licensing,

The following persons are exempt from license under the provisions of NRS 483.010 to 483.630, inclusive: [...]

A nonresident who is at least 16 years of age and who has in his or her immediate possession a valid license issued to the person in his or her home state or country may drive a motor vehicle in this State of the type or class the person may operate in that home state or country.

大意:16 岁以上 Nonresident 可持母国(州)有效驾照在 Nevada 驾驶同等车型。

新罕布什尔州 (New Hampshire): 中国驾照应该可以

State of New Hampshire, Driver's Manual, PART TWO, Driver Licensing Information,

WHO DOES NOT NEED A NEW HAMPSHIRE DRIVER LICENSE?

Non-residents who hold a valid driver license from their resident state. [...]

Foreign citizens who are strictly tourists in the United States and hold a valid driver license from their home country accompanied by an international license issued by the home country.

大意:美国其他州的 non-residents 无需 New Hampshire 驾照;非美国公民如为游客身份(即不在美国工作、生活、学习),可持 international license 在 New Hampshire 开车。

新罕布什尔州 DMV 给网友「青争子」的回复说,

If you're visiting New Hampshire and have not established residency or do not intend to live here you may drive on your home country license. If you are driving on your home country license, an English interpretation is suggested so as to assist law enforcement.

大意:如果你是路过,并不打算在本州定居,可用母国驾照开车,建议同时携带英文翻译以便协助执法人员。这话说的多客气!另外参见这位读者的反馈(NH 可以)。

新泽西州 (New Jersey): 中国驾照不可以

State of New Jersey, Motor Vehicle Commission, Visitors with foreign driver licenses,

Foreign motorists with valid driver licenses from qualifying countries* are free to drive personal or rental cars while visiting the United States as a tourist and are advised to carry an International Driving Permit. [...]

Qualifying countries from United Nations Convention on Road Traffic, Geneva (1949), Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Motor Vehicle Traffic, Washington, D.C., (1943) and Vienna Convention on Road Traffic (1968).

大意: New Jersey 只承认三个公约签署国的驾照,不包含中国。

新墨西哥州 (New Mexico): 中国驾照应该可以

New Mexico MVD 官网,"Foreign Visitors Driving in the U.S.":

Like all states, New Mexico requires a valid driver's license. It is helpful to law enforcement if the driver also possesses an International Driving Permit as well.

For more general information regarding driving in the United States, please see https://www.usa.gov/visitors-driving.

需要未过期的驾照;有 IDP 更好。

纽约州 (New York): 中国驾照可以

New York Department of Motor Vehicles, Driving in New York State,

Can I drive In New York State with an out-of-state or foreign driver license?

Yes. You can drive in New York State with a valid driver license from another state or country. You don't need to apply for a New York State driver license unless you become a New York State resident.

If you have a driver license from another country you do not need an International Driving Permit, but the permit verifies in several languages that you have a valid driver license. This is helpful to police officers who can't read the language on your foreign driver license. Contact the authorities in your home country to get an International Driving Permit.

大意:只要不是纽约州的 resident, 他国公民可凭母国有效驾照在纽约州开车,且无需国际驾照。

北卡罗来纳州 (North Carolina): 中国驾照应该可以

North Carolina Division of Motor Vehicles, "New to NC or Moving?" 有一条针对 International Driving License 的说明:

The law enforcement authorities in North Carolina do not honor an International Driver License. A valid license issued by a government agency from a home state or country is required to legally drive in this State.

大意: North Carolina 不鸟国际驾照 (IPD), 你需要使用母国(州)的驾照原件才能开车上路。并没有说明是否只认三个公约的签署国家。

北达科他州 (North Dakota): 中国驾照可以

North Dakota, Noncommercial Drivers License Manual, Exemptions,

Non-residents at least 16 years of age who have in their possession valid licenses from their home state or country, including members of the Armed Forces while stationed in North Dakota.

大意: 16 岁以上 non-resident 可凭母国(州)驾照在 North Dakota 驾车。

俄亥俄州 (Ohio): 中国驾照不可以

Ohio Department of Public Safety, Motor Vehicle Laws,

HOLDERS OF A FOREIGN DRIVER LICENSE

Motorists who are residents of other nations and who are bona fide tourists visiting the United States may drive up to one year with their own national license plates (registration tags) on their vehicle and with their own driver license. (United States motorists may drive in foreign countries under the same conditions.) These reciprocal privileges are made possible by the United Nations Convention on Road Traffic (Geneva 1949). If the name of the foreign motorist's nation is not recognized, a tourist will have to purchase license plates and obtain a driver license upon arrival in the United States.

Every visiting motorist from a ratifying country should also carry an International Driving Permit, but this is not obligatory. This permit, printed in the official languages of the United Nations, is helpful when local police speak only one language and may be essential in case of emergency. Even with an International Driving Permit, visiting motorists must have a valid license issued in their country of residence. [...]

If your country does not have reciprocal privileges with the United States, you must visit an Ohio BMV driver license exam station (see Appendix A - Driver License Exam Stations).

大意: 俄亥俄州只承认 1949 日内瓦公约签署国的驾照,持中国驾照者需到 Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles 的考试中心咨询。

Ohio DMV 给网友「青争子」的回复说,

Foreign motorists from any of the countries on the reciprocity list who visit the United States as bona fide tourists can drive legally by using their valid domestic driver's license for a period not to exceed one year from date of arrival.

Ohio 的回复相当文诌诌,上来先客气一通,正文也一本正经,大意就是签署了 1943 / 1949 / 1968 公约的互惠国家 (countries on the reciprocity list) 的游客 -- 必须是真正的游客 (bona fide tourists) -- 可以使用母国驾照在 Ohio 开车不超过一年。前面解释过了,中国没有签署这些公约。

奧克拉荷马州 (Oklahoma): 中国驾照可以

Oklahoma Driver's Manual, "WHO HAS TO HAVE AN OKLAHOMA DRIVER LICENSE?"

An Oklahoma License is NOT required for:

Nonresidents at least 16 years old who are properly licensed to drive in their home state or country. [...]

大意: 16 岁以上 nonresident 可凭母国(州)驾照在 Oklahoma 开车上路。

俄勒冈州 (Oregon): 中国驾照也许可以

Oregon Driver Manual, "Driving in Oregon,"

Residents of other states who drive vehicles in Oregon must be at least 16 years of age and have a valid out-of-state license or be at least 15 years of age and have a valid out-of-state permit. Out-of-state permit holders must abide by the same restrictions as persons with an Oregon permit.

大意: 16 岁以上外州居民可凭当地驾照在 Oregon 开车;没有提到外国驾照。

然而,俄勒冈州 DMV 给网友「青争子」的回复是,

"You may drive in Oregon using a foreign driver license for one year. You must carry the foreign driver license on you. It is suggested that visitors carry an International Driving Permit issued by officials in their country of residence."

大意:外国驾照须随身携带、可在 Oregon 使用一年,建议同时携带国际驾照。

宾夕法尼亚州 (Pennsylvania): 中国驾照应该可以

Pennsylvania Vehicle Code, Chapter 15, "Persons exempt from licensing,"

The following persons are not required to obtain a driver's license under this chapter: [...]

(3) Any nonresident who is at least 16 years of age and who has in possession a valid driver's license issued in the person's home state or country except that a person who has been issued a valid driver's license in a country other than the United States or Canada shall be exempt only upon showing a satisfactory understanding of official traffic-control devices. A nonresident may only drive the class or classes of vehicles in this Commonwealth for which the person is licensed to drive in the person's home state or country

subject to all restrictions contained on the license.

大意: 16 岁以上 nonresident 可凭母国(州)驾照在 Pennsylvania 开车; 然而如果他来自北美(美国和加拿大)以外地区,还需要证明自己熟悉宾州的交通信号。也就是说,如果你因为违反宾州的交通信号指示被拦下来,你没有任何借口。

宾州 DMV 给网友「青争子」的回复是,

Individuals who possess a valid driver's foreign license from their country are authorized to drive in Pennsylvania for up to one year from their date of entry into the U.S., or upon expiration of their foreign license, whichever comes first.

大意:外国驾照在有效期内可在宾州使用不超过一年。

罗得岛州 (Rhode Island): 中国驾照可以

State of Rhode Island General Assembly, "TITLE 31 - Motor and Other vehicles," SECTION 31-10-2, "Persons exempt from licensing requirements,"

The following persons are exempt from the licensing requirements of this chapter: [...]

(2) A nonresident who is at least sixteen (16) years of age and who has in his or her immediate possession a valid operator's license issued to him or her in his or her home state or country may operate a motor vehicle in this state only as an operator;

(3) A nonresident who is at least eighteen (18) years of age and who has in his or her immediate possession a valid chauffeur's license issued to him or her in his or her home state or country may operate a motor vehicle in this state either as an operator or chauffeur. Subject to the age limits applicable to chauffeurs in this state, that license shall be accepted as a chauffeur class I license. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a nonresident must submit an application for a chauffeur class I license which must be approved before a nonresident may be employed as a chauffeur in this state.

大意: 16 岁以上 nonresident 可持母国(州)驾照在 Rhode Island 开车。

南卡罗来纳州 (South Carolina): 中国驾照可以

South Carolina Legislature, South Carolina Code of Laws, Unannotated, Current through the end of the 2014 Session, Title 56 - Motor Vehicles, SECTION 56-1-30, Persons exempt from licensing requirements,

The following persons are exempt from licenses under this article: [...]

(2) A nonresident who is at least sixteen years of age and who has in his immediate possession a valid operator's or chauffeur's license issued to him in his home state or country may operate a motor vehicle, but a person may not claim nonresidence exemption under this provision who does not maintain a permanent residence address in the state or country of which he holds a valid and current operator's or chauffeur's license at which he regularly receives his mail and which address is on file with the motor vehicle authorities of that state or country; also, a person may not claim nonresidence exemption under this provision who for all other intents and purposes has or may remove his residence into this State.

大意: 16 岁以上 nonresident 可持母国(州)驾照在 South Carolina 开车上路。

南达科他州 (South Dakota): 可能不行

没有找到关于外国驾照的权威说明。

而且 South Dakota DMV 给网友「青争子」的回复也很含糊,并且有明显的语法错误。不知道这个州的政府部门风气是否就这样。

It is our department(')s understanding that you can drive here as a visitor on your country's license for up to one year. [...] It is also my understanding that you do have to have a valid international driver license but you can inquire that with the law inforcement.

大意:我部门的理解是外国驾照可在这里使用一年。然而你最好和当地的执法部门联系确认一下。(插一句:要不然你以为我们为什么给你写邮件?)另外我个人的理解是你需要有国际驾照,但是你可以和执法部门咨询一下。

田纳西州 (Tennessee): 中国驾照可以

Tennessee, Comprehensive Driver License Manual,

WHO IS NOT REQUIRED TO HAVE A TENNESSEE DRIVER LICENSE? [...]

Non-Tennessee residents who have in their immediate possession a valid driver license issued by their home state or country, equivalent to the appropriate class or type of Tennessee license.

大意: Nonresident 可凭母国(州)驾照驾驶同等车型。

德克萨斯州 (Texas): 中国驾照不可以

Texas Driver Handbook, Chapter 1: Your License to Drive, "Who May Drive a Motor Vehicle in Texas?"

Individuals who meet the following criteria may drive a motor vehicle in Texas.[...]

Any nonresident who is at least 16 years of age and possesses a valid driver license issued in the nonresident's home state. Nonresidents at least 16 years of age who meet this criteria may drive a vehicle permitted to be operated with a Class C or Class M driver license in Texas.

Nonresidents who are at least 18 years of age may drive any vehicle in Texas if they are legally licensed to drive such a vehicle in their home state or country, and their home state or country grants like recognition (reciprocity) to citizens of Texas (Please reference the Texas Administrative Code, Title 37, Sections 15.91 and 15.92).

大意: Texas 只承认美国其他州以及 Texas Administrative Code, Title 37, Sections 15.91 and 15.92 所列国家的驾照。不包括中国 (PRC), 也不包括台湾 (ROC), 香港、澳门。

犹他州 (Utah): 中国驾照可以

Utah Drive Handbook, CHAPTER 1, DRIVER LICENSE REGULATIONS

PERSONS WHO DO NOT NEED A UTAH LICENSE

Non-residents licensed by another state or country may drive in Utah:

If they are at least 16 years old.

If they are temporarily assigned by an employer, religious or private organization, or governmental entity.

Visitors with a valid out-of-state or out-of-country license may drive in Utah for up to six months.

大意:16 岁以上 Nonresident 持母国(州)驾照可以在 Utah 开 6 个月。

佛蒙特州 (Vermont): 中国驾照不可以

Vermont Department of Motor Vehicles, "Licenses Issued by Foreign Jurisdictions,"

A foreign visitor from one of the countries or territories listed herein may legally drive on the roads of the State of Vermont on his or her own country's license (limited to a licensed driver who is at least 18 years old, legally present in the US and limited to a vehicle of the type covered by the license) for up to one year from the date of arrival. [...]

A licensed driver from one of the countries listed herein, in addition to his or her valid home country license, must carry a valid International Driving Permit. [...]

大意:Vermont 只承认该页表格所列国家和地区的驾照,其中包括香港、澳门和台湾,但是清楚注明「不包括中国大陆」。

弗吉尼亚州 (Virginia): 中国驾照可以

Virginia Driver's Manual, "International Driver's License,"

An international driver's license is not a valid driver's license and does not allow you to drive. It is only a foreign translation of your existing valid driver's license to be used when you are traveling outside of the U.S. These permits are issued by your local AAA, except to persons whose driving privilege is suspended or revoked.

If you are visiting the U.S. from a foreign country, you may drive using your driver's license issued by your home country. Your home country driver's license should be accompanied by a translation of the license. International driver's licenses marketed by private sector businesses are not valid and do not allow you to legally operate a motor vehicle. Sale of any document claiming to be a driver's license is a Class 1 misdemeanor.

大意:外国游客可凭母国驾照 + 英语翻译在 Virginia 开车。DMV 特别提醒你,商业组织售卖的「国际驾照」(International driver's licenses)没什么卵用(注:驾照只能由政府机关颁发;联合国公约确定的 IDP 只能由政府授权的机构颁发,参见这里),如果有人卖给你所谓的「驾照」,属于 1 级轻罪。我觉得这就是给那些向中国公民贩卖国际驾照的人专门准备的。我大 Virginia 威武!

华盛顿州 (Washington): 中国驾照可以

Washington State Department of Licensing, Washington Driver Guide, "Nonresidents and Visitors,"

If you are a nonresident or a short-term visitor, you can operate a motor vehicle in this state if you have a valid driver license from your home state, province, territory, or country and you are at least 16 years old. This applies to:

members of the Armed Forces on active duty or members of a foreign military on temporary duty with the Armed Forces, as well as their spouses and children.

students who are here to further their education and who are considered nonresidents for tuition purposes.

employees of companies licensed to do business in Washington State, who are here for a short time to receive or give job instruction.

foreign tourists, teachers, or business people who are here for up to one year.

大意:游客可凭母国(州、省、领地等)有效驾照在华盛顿州开一年。注意这不是华盛顿特区。

西弗吉尼亚州 (West Virignia): 中国驾照可以

State of West Virginia, Driver's Licensing Handbook, CHAPTER I, DRIVER'S LICENSE INFORMATION, "Who is Exempt?"

A nonresident who is at least 16 years old and has a valid license from another state or country (limited to 90 days in a calendar year)

大意:16 岁以上 nonresident 可凭母国(州)驾照在 West Virginia 开车,每一年度限 90 天。

威斯康星州 (Wisconsin): 中国不行

Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Motorists' Handbook, "THE DRIVER LICENSE," "Exception,"

The following people who are non-residents of Wisconsin may drive with a valid license from their home state or country while living in Wisconsin, as long as they are at least 16 years old and their privilege to operate a motor vehicle in Wisconsin is not suspended, revoked, cancelled or disqualified: [...]

Foreign tourists who are here for up to one year.

大意:外国游客持母国有效驾照在 Wisconsin 可开车一年。

然而,威斯康辛州 DMV 给网友「青争子」的回复说,

As China is not a signatory nation to either the 1949 Geneva Convention on Road Traffic or the 1943 Convention on Inter-American Motor Vehicle Traffic, you are unable to legally drive in Wisconsin with your Chinese license.

这是所有州里最明确的拒绝:中国未签署相关公约,因此中国驾照不能在威斯康辛州使用。

怀俄明州 (Wyoming): 中国驾照可以

Wyoming Department of Transportation, Driver Services,

Drivers with licenses issued from another country may drive in Wyoming as long as they have a valid driver license from their country. An International Driving Permit is recommended but not mandatory. This permit translates your driver license, so if needed, the proper authorities will be able to ascertain the information on your driver license.

大意:外国有效驾照可在 Wyoming 合法开车上路。如有国际驾照更好,但并非必须。

科领移民签证网——专业移民公司
本文标签: 美国开车规定

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